His reputation firmly established, Lieber became interested in a permanent academic position. With the reorganization of South Carolina College in 1835, Lieber was elected professor of history and political economy.
The years that followed the War of 1812 saw South Carolina’s greatest experiment with a statewide, state-funded, and state-operated system of internal improvements.
Even before the state seceded, South Carolina had already begun making preparations for a war that most of her citizens believed either would never actually occur or would be of short duration. Militia companies, some of them with lineages dating back to the Revolutionary War, were joined by new units raised in cities, towns, and communities all over the state to accommodate the flood of enthusiastic volunteers.